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Life Labs Analysis

Diagnostic services to monitor your care.

All tests are ordered and analyzed by the Naturopathic Doctor. Results will be sent directly to the clinic and will be analyzed at your next visit. Please refer any questions you may have to the time of your next follow up appointment.


Panel Testing Reasoning
Panel 1
A/G ratio, albumin, alk, phos, ALT, AST, bilirubin total and direct, BUN, calcium, chloride, total cholesterol, CO2, creatinine, glucose, LD, phosphorous, potassium, sodium, GTT, globulin, Total protein, triglycerides, uric acid
  • General screening for liver, bile duct, kidney, blood sugar / pancreatic function, blood electrolytes.
  • See specific tests for details on the panel.
Panel 2
Panel 1 + HDL, LDL, cholesterol, TIBC with 12 – 14 hour fast
  • Additional screening for cholesterol and iron binding
  • See specific tests for details on the panel.
Panel 3
Panel 1 + HDL, LDL, cholesterol, TIBC, free T4 with 12 – 14 hour fast
  • Additional testing for cholesterol and thyroid function
  • See specific tests for details on the panel.
Thyroid Panel
TSH, TPO, free T3, free T4, reverse T3
  • General screening for thyroid function
  • See specific tests for details on the panel.
Cholesterol Panel
LDL, HDL, TG’s Total / HDL
  • General screening for cholesterol metabolism
  • See specific tests for details on the panel.
Blood Draws for
Non-MDS Tests
(ex. Allergy serum)
  • Non-MDS tests that require blood to be taken



Test Reasoning
ABO / Rh Grouping
  • Tests blood type of the patient
  • Testing for A, B, O, AB blood types


ACTH (Adrenocorticotropic hormone)
  • ACTH stimulates the adrenal cortex – specifically cortisol hormone
  • ACTH is secreted from the anterior pituitary in response to corticotropin-releasing hormone from the hypothalamus. corticotropin-releasing hormone is secreted in response to many types of stress, which makes sense in view of the “stress management” functions of glucocorticoids.


  • Albumin refers to any protein with water solubility, which is moderately soluble in concentrated salt solutions, and experiences heat coagulation (protein denaturation).
  • Albumin acts as a carrier of certain compounds in the blood
  • Albumin testing is used in a variety of settings to help diagnose disease, to monitor changes in health status with treatment or with disease progression, and as a screen that may serve as an indicator for other kinds of testing.
  • Specific conditions can be liver or kidney disorders
  • The concentration nof albumin drops when the liver is damaged, with kidney disease (nephritic syndrome), when a person is malnourished, if a person experiences inflammation in the body or is in shock.


Albumin / Creatinine Ratio – 24 hour Urine
  • Measures protein concentration to excretion ratios within the body


  • Determines if aldosterone or rennin hormone levels are abnormal
  • Used to detect hyperaldosteronism (overproduction of aldosterone) or hypoaldosteronism (underproduction of aldosterone)
  • Indicated for blood pressure issues or muscle weakness


ALP (alkaline phosphatase)
  • Measures isozymes which are found in bone, liver, intestine, placenta
  • Useful test for bone problems and biliary obstruction


AFP (alpha feto-protein)
  • Used to screen for and monitor therapy for certain cancers of the liver, testes, or ovaries


  • Detects liver damage
  • Liver function test which is more sensitive to hepatocyte (liver cell) injury than for biliary obstruction.
  • Used as a screening test for liver damage or hepatitis (liver inflammation).


  • Enzyme produced by the pancreas and salivary glands and excreted by the kidney
  • Amylase is the main enzyme involved in carbohydrate break-down. It is constantly secreted by the body and supports proper digestion and assimilation of nutrients
  • Used for screening for secretion issues, acute pancreatitis, abdominal pain, epigastric tenderness, nausea and vomiting


ANA (antinuclear antibody)
  • The antibodies in the serum of the blood are exposed in the laboratory to cells.
  • It is then determined whether or not antibodies are present that react to various parts of the nucleus of cells of the body.
  • Used as a tool to diagnose autoimmune conditions where the body attacks its own tissue with the immune system.


  • Antibodies reactive with ds-DNA are primary importance for diagnosing autoimmune conditions like systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and immune complex glomerulonephritis


Antibody Screen
  • Antibodies (Ab) are part of the body’s immune system.
  • Antibodies are immunoglobulin proteins that help protect us against microscopic invaders such as viruses, bacteria, chemicals, or toxins.
  • Used to determine autoimmune diseases or specific allergic conditions.


Anti-Thyroglobulin Antibody (Tg-Ab)
  • Used to monitor treatment of some types of thyroid cancer and to detect recurrence; less commonly, may be used to help determine the cause of hyperthyroidism


Beta Carotene
  • Used to measure the amount of beta-carotene in blood.
  • Beta-carotene is the precursor to Vitamin A.


  • Measures liver, spleen and gallbladder function
  • Rises in bilirubin can be a cause of jaundice from blockage, biliary calculi or cirrhosis
  • Measures the function of liver cells


  • Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) tests the end product of protein catabolism (breakdown) and is used as a gross index of glomerular function (kidney filtration) and assessment of urea levels
  • Less sensitive than creatinine especially in acute disorders although in chronic renal disease it correlates more accurately with symptoms of uremia than serum creatinine
  • Elevation indicates possible urinary tract obstruction and kidney filtration problems


  • Used to monitor insulin production by the beta cells in the pancreas and to help determine the cause of hypoglycemia
  • Used to assess for diabetes of metabolic syndrome.


  • Carbohydrate antigen (CA) tests for various types of cancer.
  • CA-125 correlates strongly with ovarian cancer.


CA 15-3
  • Carbohydrate antigen (CA) tests for various types of cancer.
  • CA-15-3 is used as a tumour marker to monitor a patient’s response to breast cancer treatment and to watch for breast cancer recurrence.


CA 19-9
  • Carbohydrate antigen (CA) tests for various types of cancer.
  • CA-19-9 is used to monitor patients with pancreatic or colon cancer however there are many false positives with this test making it unreliable.


Calcium – 24 hour urine
  • Urine collection test to measure calcium excretion from the body over a 24 hour period.
  • Useful to assess parathyroid function which regulates calcium metabolism and other malignancies.
  • Indicated as a workup for pancreatitis and other gastrointestinal problems, kidney stones and filtration issues and well as various endocrine diseases.


Calcium – serum
  • Measures calcium in the blood serum
  • Useful to assess parathyroid function which regulates calcium metabolism and other malignancies.
  • Indicated as a workup for pancreatitis and other gastrointestinal problems, kidney stones and filtration issues and well as various endocrine diseases.


Calcium – ionized
  • Ionized calcium is physiologically active and under homeostatic control within the body.
  • Useful to assess parathyroid function which regulates calcium metabolism and other malignancies.
  • Indicated as a workup for pancreatitis and other gastrointestinal problems, kidney stones and filtration issues and well as various endocrine diseases.


  • Carbamazepine (sold under the brand-names Biston, Calepsin, Carbatrol, Epitol, Equetro, Finlepsin, Sirtal, Stazepine, Tegretol, Telesmin, Timonil, sometimes abbreviated CBZ) is an anticonvulsant and mood stabilizing drug, used primarily in the treatment of epilepsy and bipolar disorder.
  • Test used to evaluate drug toxicity in the body


Catecholamines – urine
  • Catecholamines are produced in the adrenal gland of the body.
  • Used to help diagnose or rule out a pheochromocytoma (tumor of the adrenal gland) or other neuroendocrine tumor.


CBC + Differential (*)
  • Complete blood count (CBC) measures all aspects of the blood including the red blood cells and white blood cell amounts.
  • To determine general health status and to screen for a variety of disorders, such as anemia and infection.


WBC (White Blood Cells)

  • The actual number of white blood cells per volume of blood – white blood cells are used to fight infection
  • Can increase in infection or other health conditions
  • Can decrease with immune weakness or other health conditions

RBC (Red Blood Cells)

  • The actual number of red blood cells per volume of blood – red blood cells rae used to carry oxygen to tissues of the body
  • Both increases and decreases can point to abnormal health conditions

HGB (Hemoglobin)

  • The amount of oxygen carrying protein in the blood

HCT (Hematocrit)

  • The amount of space red blood cells take up in the blood – reported as a percentage

MCV (Mean Corpuscular Volume)

  • The average size of the red blood cells
  • An elevated value may indicate anemia due to vitamin B12 deficiency
  • A decreased value may indicate iron deficiency anemia or thalassemia

MCH (Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin)

  • The amount of oxygen carrying hemoglobin inside the red blood cell

MCHC (Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration)

  • The concentration of hemoglobin inside the red blood cells. Decreased HCHC values (hypocrhomia) are seen in conditions where the hemoglobin is abnormally diluted inside the red cells, such as iron deficiency anemia or thalassemia

RDW (Red Cell Distribution Width)

  • The variation in the size of your red blood cells. In some anemias such as pernicious anemia, the amount of variation (anisocytosis) in red blood cell size (along with variation in shape – poikilocytosis) causes an increase in the RDW

Platelet Count

  • The number of platelets in a given volume of blood
  • Both increases and decreases can point to abnormal conditions of excess bleeding or clotting


  • Referring to grandular leukocyte (white blood cell).
  • Neutrophils engulf bacteria and other cellular debris in the body
  • Increases in the number of neutrophils occur in acute infections, certain neoplasmic disease or other disorders.


  • White blood cells that normally make up about 25% of the total white blood cell count tend to increase in the presence of infection.


  • Type of granular leukocyte (white blood cell) that functions in the ingestion of bacteria and other foreign particles in the body


  • White blood cells stained with eosin.
  • Eosinophils, normally make up 1-3% of the total white blood cell count, are believed to function in allergic response and in resisting some infections.


  • Type of white blood cell (Leukocyte) with coarse granules in the cell.
  • Basophils normally make up 1% or less of the total white blood cell count and increase or decrease in certain diseases
  • Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) test is used to monitor the recurrence or progression in colon cancer patients or their response to therapy.


Celiac Profile – Disease Panel
  • Gliadin antibodies, anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies
  • Ceruloplasmin is officially known as ferroxidase or iron(II):oxygen oxidoreductase and is manufactured in the liver.
  • Although it is often considered a copper transport protein, this is not its primary function, just as hemoglobin is not a carrier of iron, although it contains iron. The main carrier for copper in the plasma of humans is albumin. Ceruloplasmin catalyzes the oxidation of ferrous iron (Fe2+) to ferric iron (Fe3+), therefore assisting in its transport in the plasma in association with transferrin, which can only carry iron in the ferric state.
  • Used to measure iron status of the blood


  • Chloride is an important electrolyte of the body that drives a wide range of metabolic functions.
  • Used to determine if there is a problem with the body’s electrolyte or acid-base balance and to monitor treatment.


Cholesterol Total
  • Useful to measure hyoerlipidemia, liver and gallbladder disorders and to evaluate for cardiovascular disease.


CK (creatine kinase)
  • Measures an enzyme that is released from cardiovascular tissue after an acute heart attack (myocardial infarction) or to assess musculoskeletal disease (ex. Duchenne’s muscular dystrophy)


CK Isoenzymes
  • Measures an enzyme that is released from cardiovascular tissue to diagnose an acute heart attack (myocardial infarction)
CO2 (blood)
  • CO2 is part of an electrolyte panel to screen for an electrolyte or acid-base imbalance or to monitor a known imbalance
  • Symptoms of CO2 imbalance include weakness, confusion, prolonged vomiting, or respiratory distress that could indicate an electrolyte or acid-base imbalance.


Copper – serum or urine
  • Tests for specific copper imbalances in the body.
Cortisol – serum
  • Cortisol is a hormone secreted by the adrenal gland and supports the body’s stress response.
  • The 24 hour cortisol urine sample is more accurate since cortisol cycles throughout the day.


Cortisol – 24 hour urine
  • Measures the dynamic activity of cortisol in the body.
  • Useful for determining adrenal function and assessing endocrine system disorders.


Creatinine – serum
  • Used to measure suspected renal disease and to estimate kidney filtration, muscle breakdown diseases.
  • Values are elevated in a wide range of kidney and muscle disease.


CRP – hs (high sensitivity)
  • Very important indicator for cardiovascular disease – the higher the level of CRP the higher the greater the risk for cardiovascular disease.
  • C-reactive protein (CRP) is one of the “acute phase proteins” which increase with infection, stress, malignancy, arthritis, trauma and post surgery.
  • Acute myocardial infarction will also increase with serum levels of CRP.
  • Recent research suggests that serum CRP level in healthy individuals is perhaps the most significant indicator of the risk of future cardiovascular events.


DHEAs – serum
  • Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is the highest volume of adrenal secretion along with its sulfated metabolite DHEA-S.
  • Measures symptoms of aging particularly androgen deficiency syndromes, autoimmune disease and cancers.


Estradiol (E2) – serum
  • Used to assess fertility, virilization, menstrual irregularity.
  • Most estrogen testing is most accurate when it is measured throughout the cycle to assess for patterns since this hormone fluctuates during the month.


Estrone (E1) – serum
  • Can be increased in post menopausal women.


  • Measures iron reserves in the body.
  • Ferritin is an iron-storing protein manufactured in the liver, spleen, bone marrow, tumor cells and sites of inflammation.
  • Iron is used to as a component of heme within red blood cells which is used to carry oxygen to tissues and is also used to build a strong immune system.
  • Ferritin test is the most reliable indicator of iron stores.
  • Useful to evaluate various forms of anemia and hemochromatosis.


  • Fibrinogen is a complex polypeptide made in the liver that converts fibrin after thrombin enzymatic action and combines with platelets in the blood to form clots.
  • Excessive clotting can lead to disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), fibrinolytic activity, or congenital fibrinogenemia.
  • Values are increased in rheumatoid arthritis, hepatitis, infection and menstruation.
  • Values are decreased in hemolytic anemia, burns, carcinoma, cirrhosis, coagulation factor deficiency, various fibrinogen disorders, eclampsia, leukemia, lymphoma, multiple myeloma, septicemia, trauma and various drugs.


Folate – RBC
  • Used to detect folate deficiency, monitory therapy with folate and evaluate megaloblastic or microcytic anemia
  • Folate tests can also be used to monitor alcoholic patients


Folate – serum
  • Used to detect folate deficiency, monitory therapy with folate and evaluate megaloblastic or microcytic anemia
  • Folate tests can also be used to monitor alcoholic patients


Free T3
  • Measures triiodothyronine (T3) directly which is a marker of thyroid function as T3 is the most active form of thyroid hormone.


Free T4
  • Measures the concentration of free thyroxine (T4)
  • (this test is not usually done)


  • Used to help monitor diabetes over time, especially when it is not possible to monitor using the A1C test.


FSH (follicle stimulating hormone)
  • FSH is a hormone synthesized and secreted by the anterior pituitary gland.
  • In the ovary FSH stimulates the growth of immature follicles to maturation.
  • As the follicle grows it releases inhibin, which shuts off the FSH production.
  • In men, FSH enhances the production of androgen-binding protein by the sertoli cells of the testes and is critical for spermatogenesis.
  • FSH and LH act synergistically in reproduction.
  • Elevated FSH is found in menopause, PCOS, primary amenorrhea.
  • Decreased levels indicate secondary amenorrhea, hypopititarism, ovarian issues and anovulatory cycle.


  • G6PD deficiency is an inherited condition in which the body does not have enough of the enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) which helps red blood cells (RBCs) function normally.
  • This deficiency can cause hemolytic anemia, usually after exposure to certain medications, foods, or even infections.
  • Infants may have persistent jaundice.
  • Used to determine whether you have an inherited G6PD deficiency.


GFR + Creatinine
  • Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) assess kidney’s ability to filter and is a complete measurement of kidney function.


GGT (Gamma Glutamyl Transferase)
  • Helps to differentiate changes in LDH and ALT to measure alcoholic hepatitis or conditions of biliary obstruction and pancreatitis


Gliadin IgG / IgA antibodies
  • Detection of gliadin antibodies aids in the diagnosis and monitoring of certain gluten-sensitive enteropathies, such as celiac disease and dermatitis herpetiformis.
  • Celiac disease is an autoimmune disease where the body attacks the enterocytes of the bowel causing severe digestive issues and sensitivity to all gluten containing foods.


Glucose – serum
  • Evaluate carbohydrate metabolism, acidosis and ketoacidosis and dehydration states
  • Disorders of glucose metabolism are seen in diabetic patients where too much sugar is in the blood and is not being moved into the cell. This causes a rise in blood sugars.


Glucose tolerance test – 2 hour
  • Evaluate carbohydrate metabolism, acidosis and ketoacidosis and dehydration states
  • Disorders of glucose metabolism are seen in diabetic patients
  • Screening test for diabetes and to monitor insulin therapy


Gram Stain
  • Gram stain is a type of stain used to determine bacteria in a sample
  • Used to identify the presence of bacteria in a patient’s specimen so that appropriate treatment can be given.
  • Certain bacteria can be classified as gram negative or gram positive bacteria.


H. Pylori Breath Test
  • To diagnose an infection with Helicobacter pylori bacteria within the digestive system.


(Glycosylated Hemoglobin)
  • HbA1c measures glycosylated hemoglobin which refers to blood glucose bound to hemoglobin.
  • HbA1c is formed as hemoglobin is gradually glycosylated throughout the 120 day red blood cell lifespan and forms the largest portion of the three glycosylated hemoglobin fractions.
  • Assesses long term glucose control in diabetes and long term high blood sugar concentration.


Hemaglobin Electrophoresis
  • Hemoglobin is the oxygen carrying component of the red blood cell.
  • Used to measure anemia (too few red blood cells) or polycythemia (too many red blood cells), to assess the severity of these conditions, and to monitor their response to treatment.


Hepatitis A Screen
  • Hepatitis s a liver disease caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). Hepatitis A can affect anyone. In the United States, hepatitis A can occur in situations ranging from isolated cases of disease to widespread epidemics.
  • Test assess hepatitis A infection.


Hepatitis B Screen
  • Hepatitis is a serious disease caused by a virus that attacks the liver. The virus, which is called hepatitis B virus (HBV), can cause lifelong infection, cirrhosis (scarring) of the liver, liver cancer, and possible liver failure.
  • Tests for hepatitis B infection


Hepatitis C Screen
  • Hepatitis is a liver disease caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV), which is found in the blood of persons who have the disease. HCV is spread by contact with the blood of an infected person.
  • Tests hepatitis C infection.


  • Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) is used for testing ankylosing spondylitis (B27 subtype) or organ transplantation to determine donor compatibility for transplantation


  • Homocysteine is a sulfur-containing amino acid derived from the breakdown of dietary methionine (another amino acid)
  • Numerous clinical and population studies as well as experimental evidence from cell culture and animal models have shown even a moderately elevated blood level of homocysteine to be an independent risk factor for artheriosclerosis.
  • Homocysteine is a naturally occurring amino acid. It’s concentration is related to methionine, an essential amino acid
  • Homocysteine test is often used in conjunction with CRP tests to assess levels of inflammation within the body
  • Deficiencies in certain B vitamins can cause blood levels of homocysteine to rise


IGF-1, total
(insulin-like growth factor)
  • IGF is a liver protein that mediates effects of growth hormone
Immunocyte NMP-22
  • Measures the presence of bladder tumor formation.


(international normalized ratio)
  • International Normalized Ratio (INR) measure clotting activity
  • PTT values have long been hampered by the use of non-standard reagents (thromboplastins) – INR is a way to overcome this problem.
  • Thromboplastins are now assigned an international sensitivity index (ISI) so their sensitivities can be compared.
  • The ISI measures the responsiveness of a given reagent to reduction of vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors (II, VII, IX, X) compared with the international reference.
  • INR normalizes the PT ration by the ISI (INR = (patient PT in seconds / mean of normal patient range) ISI
  • High values indicate the patient is more anti-coagulated
  • Lower values indicate a more hypercoagulatable state


  • Insulin is a hormone that regulates carbohydrate metabolism.
  • Used to help evaluate insulin production, diagnose an insulinoma (insulin-producing pancreatic islet cell tumor), and to help determine the cause of hypoglycemia
  • Determines if there is hypoglycemia of if there are symptoms suggesting insulin either is being inappropriately released or utilized by the body.
  • Used to document insulin resistance in patients with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS), pre-diabetes or heart disease, Metabolic Syndrome, or disorders related to the pituitary or adrenal glands.


Iron / TIBC
(total iron binding capacity)
  • The maximum amount of iron that transferrin can carry.
  • Transferring is a protein that transports iron in the body.
  • The test is used to differentiate microcytic anemia from anemia in chronic inflammatory conditions.


LDH (lactate dehydrogenase)
  • Increased values usually indicate cellular death and leakage of enzymes from a cell
  • Useful for detecting cardiovascular cell damage for the diagnosis of a heart attack or to measure damage of other organs like the lung and kidney


Lead – serum or urine
  • Used to screen for lead exposure indicated by elevated levels of lead in your blood and to assess for lead poisoning.


LH (lutenizing hormone)
  • LH is a hormone synthesized and secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland.
  • In concert with the other pituitary gonadotropin follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) it is necessary for proper reproductive function.
  • Elevated in cases of PCOS, hyperpituitarism.
  • Decreased in cases of anorexia, hypopituitarism and malnutrition.


  • Lipase is an enzyme secreted by the body to help with the breakdown of fat
  • Test measures pancreatic function and is used to diagnose acute or chronic pancreatitis.
  • Serum amylase (see amylase test) can return to normal range first, lipase levels are very useful to assess damage several days after onset.


Lipoprotien a
  • This test is part of a cardiovascular work-up
  • Elevated in case of atherosclerosis and dyslipidemia
  • Used to help evaluate the risk of developing coronary artery disease (CAD)


Lipoprotien b
  • This test is part of a cardiovascular work-up
  • Elevated in case of atherosclerosis and dyslipidemia
  • Used to help evaluate the risk of developing coronary artery disease (CAD)


  • Used to determine lithium concentration in the blood in order to maintain a therapeutic level or to detect lithium toxicity.


Magnesium – red blood cell
  • Used to evaluate the level of magnesium in your blood and to help determine the cause of abnormal calcium and/or potassium levels
  • Symptoms (such as weakness, irritability, cardiac arrhythmia, nausea, and/or diarrhea) that may be due to too much or too little magnesium or if there are  have abnormal calcium or potassium levels.


Magnesium – serum
  • Magnesium deficiency produces a number of symptoms including neuromuscular spasms, dizziness and tremors.
  • Increases are related to renal failure and a variety of disease states.


  • Used to detect excessive levels of manganese in the blood.
  • Toxicity can occur from inhaling manganese dust or fumes, which is a constant hazard in the steel and dry-cell-battery industries, or from drinking contaminated water.
  • Detects manganese deficiency, which may occur in: patients with inadequate caloric or nutritional dietary intake, pregnant or breast-feeding women, patients with alcohol or drugs abuse, chronic wasting illness, excess stress for long periods or those who have recently undergone surgery, patients with a portion of the gastrointestinal tract surgically removed, patients with recent severe burns or injuries, or women taking oral contraceptives or estrogen.


Mercury – serum or urine
  • Used to detect excessive exposure to mercury
  • Mercury toxicity can lead to a wide variety of problems including bowel toxicity, neurological complaints, fatigue and a host of other symptoms.
  • Thimerosal™ is an organometallic compound used commonly world-wide since the early 1930s as a preservative in such things as some vaccines, cosmetics, eye drops, contact lens solutions, tatoo ink, etc.
  • The use of Thimerosal has become ever-more controversial recently due to concerns about potential neurotoxic properties of the mercury containing compound and the potential connection to autism.


  • Used to help detect early and/or mild vitamin B12 deficiency, especially at the tissue level; to help diagnose methylmalonic acidemia, a rare inherited metabolic disorder.


  • N-telopeptide is a bone resorption marker used to assess for osteoporosis.


Nickel – serum or urine
  • Testing for nickel levels in the blood


Omega 3 (includes cost of blood draw)
  • Assess levels of omega 3 fatty acids in the blood
  • Omega 3 fatty acids help to balance immune function and reduce inflammation in the body.


PAP smear
  • The Pap test, also called a Pap smear, checks for changes in the cells of the cervix (the cervix is the lower part of the uterus that opens into the vagina.
  • The Pap test can tell if you have an infection, abnormal (unhealthy) cervical cells, or cervical cancer.


Parietal Cell Antibody
  • Used to measure the presence of antibodies against the parietal cells of the stomach.
  • The parietal cells secrete intrinsic factor and stomach acid.
  • Intrinsic factor is a protein produced by glands in the stomach lining – it is necessary for the absorption of vitamin B-12 by the intestines.


  • Used to evaluate causes of phosphorous imbalances.
  • Disturbances can be seen in parathyroids issues, adrenal issues, kidney and bone problems.


  • Tests for the presence of pinworm in the digestive system.
  • Pinworms are parasitic organisms that feed on intestinal material – infestation can cause a wide variety of digestive and systemic disorders.


  • Used to diagnose levels of potassium that are too high (hyperkalaemia) or too low (hypokalaemia)
  • Potassium can be involved in cases of high blood pressure or kidney disease.


Pregnancy Test – serum HCG
  • Used to confirm and monitor pregnancy or to diagnose trophoblastic disease or germ cell tumours
  • The test can be used as early as 10 days after a missed menstrual period (some methods can detect hCG even earlier, at one week after conception)
  • The test can be used to rule out ectopic pregnancy, a failing pregnancy, trophoblastic disease or germ cell tumours.


Pregnancy Test – urine
  • Tests for pregnancy – measures HcG concentrations to determine pregnancy


Progesterone – serum
  • Progesterone is a  steroid hormone involved in the female menstrual cycle, pregnancy.
  • Testing to determine if ovulation is occurring in infertile women and to evaluate amenorrhea and menstrual abnormalities.


  • Prolactin is a hormone secreted by the pituitary gland for lactation.
  • Indicated for non-pregnant lactation, unexplained menstrual cycles, low libido, infertility and hypopituitarism.


Protein, Total
  • To screen for certain liver and kidney disorders as well as other diseases.


PSA (prostatic specific antigen)
  • PSA means prostatic specific antigen which is a protein produced by the prostate and measured in the blood
  • A high PSA value can be due to prostate infection, non-cancerous enlargement of the prostate or prostatic cancer


PSA Ratio
  • Used to detect and to monitor prostate cancer.
  • Used if the patient has symptoms of prostate disease, such as difficulty in passing urine, or passing urine more frequently than usual.


PTH (parathyroid hormone)
  • PTH is secreted by the parathyroid and acts to increase the concentration of calcium in the blood, whereas calcitonin (a hormone produced by the thyroid gland) acts to decrease calcium concentration.
  • Elevated in hyperparathyroidism and chronic renal failure.
  • Decreased in hypoparathyroidism.


PTT (partial prothrombin time)
  • A very sensitive test to coagulation factor deficiencies within the intrinsic system before the prothrombin stage
  • Used to evaluate the intrinsic coagulation system and to identify single factor deficiencies including VII, IX, XI, XII, dysfibrinogenemia, disseminated intravascular coagulation, liver failure and vitamin K deficiency


PT (prothrombin time)
  • Prothrombin is a vitamin-K dependent glycoprotein produced by the liver that is necessary for fibrin clot formation
  • PTT measures the amount of time for clot formation after reagent tissue thromboplastin and calcium are added to citrated plasma
  • Indicates extrinsic coagulation system and screens for clotting factors or prothrombin, evaluate effects of heparin, coumarin or warfarin drugs, screen for liver failure, disseminated intravascular coagulation or vitamin K deficiency


RA Factor
  • Rheumatoid arthritis factor (RA factor) is used to assess autoimmune conditions


Reticulin antibody
  • The R1 type anti-reticulin antibody (ARA) is closely associated with gluten-sensitivity issues in the bowel.
  • ARA disappears from the circulation within a few weeks of starting on a gluten-free diet and often reappears following gluten challenge.


Reticulocyte count
  • Measures immature red blood cells (RBCs)
  • Test is indicated with suspected anemia to evaluate bone marrow function or in cases where the patient has excessive bleeding or bruising
  • Elevated in cases of hemolytic anemia, acute / chronic hemorrhage, leukemia, malaria, cancer, polycythemia, sickle cell anemia, thalassemia major, transfusions or anemia treatment
  • Decreased in cases of alcoholism, anemia (nutritional deficiencies or pernicious), myelodysplastic syndromes, aplastic crisis, bone marrow failure, chronic infection, myxedema, radiation therapy


Reverse T3
  • Reverse T3 (rT3) is formed from T4
  • rT3 has little or no biological activity and serves as a disposal path for T4
  • In hypothyroidism both rT3 and T3 levels decrease indicating lower thyroid function


Sedimentation Rate (ESR)
  • Measures the sedimentation rate of the eosinophils of the blood
  • Used to detect and monitor the activity of inflammation as an aid in the diagnosis of the underlying cause
  • Indications can be many inflammatory conditions ranging from temporal arteritis or polymyalgia rheumatica.


Semen Analysis – fertility
  • Used to investigate the health of the reproductive organs to rule out infertility or after a vasectomy to determine if the operation was successful.


Semen Analysis – post vasectomy
  • Used to investigate the health of the reproductive organs to rule out infertility or after a vasectomy to determine if the operation was successful.


SHBG (serum hormone binding globulin)
  • SHBG is synthesized in the liver, and in the circulation its biological function is the transport of sex steroid hormones.
  • SHBG test is primarily ordered to help evaluate the status of a patient’s androgens (male hormones).


  • Used to determine whether the sodium concentration is within normal limits and to help evaluate electrolyte balance and kidney function; to monitor chronic or acute hyper- or hyponatremia (high or low sodium levels)
  • Indicated for dehydration issues, edema or problems with blood pressure.


Stool Culture
  • Measures digestive issues resulting in and carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism problems.
  • Fecal specimen is submitted for the detection of bacterial (salmonella, Shigella, Vibrio, Campylobacter etc.) and parasitic infections.
  • Pathogenic bacteria can lead to a wide variety of issues ranging from digestive to other chronic ailments.


Stool Ova & Parasites
  • Fecal specimen is submitted for the detection of bacterial (salmonella, Shigella, Vibrio, Campylobacter etc.) and parasitic infections.
  • Pathogenic bacteria can lead to a wide variety of issues ranging from digestive to other chronic ailments


Swab culture
  • This test is not a substitute for a fecal specimen for enteric pathogens and parasites.
  • The test is recommended for the detection of Neisseria gonorrhea and herpes simplex virus (HSV)


Testosterone, bioavailable (BAT)
  • The clinical manifestations of the reduction of serum androgens in aging men are usually slow to manifest themselves – as such they can be confused with other disorders of the aging process such as diminished sex drive, mood changes, fatigue, depression, decrease in muscle mass and strength, osteoporosis
  • BAT comprises free testosterone plus albumin-bound testosterone – both these components can provide testosterone to most tissues
  • BAT is the best diagnostic test for andropause
Testosterone, total
  • testosterone is a steroid hormone secreted in the testes of males and the ovaries of females although small amounts are secreted by the adrenal glands.
  • It is the principal male sex hormone and an anabolic steroid and plays key roles in health and well-being in both sexes
  • Testosterone is tested to assess male infertility, virilization, testicular cancer and prostate cancer


Total T3
  • Measures the concentration of triiodthyroine in serum which is the most active of all the thyroid hormones.
  • T3 is increased in all cases of hyperthyroidism where the thyroid is overactive.


  • Iron transport glycoprotein formed in the liver
  • A poor measurement of anemia but a good marker of protein malnutrition


Transglutaminase, Anti-tissue antibodies
  • Anti-tissue antibodies have high specificity for celiac disease.
  • Measures fat that is transported within the body.
  • Elevated in diabetes, inflammatory syndromes and cardiovascular conditions.


  • Measures the concentration of thyroid stimulating hormone in the serum
  • thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) blood test is used to detect problems affecting the thyroid gland.
  • TSH is produced when the hypothalamus releases a substance called thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH).
  • TRH then triggers the pituitary gland to release TSH.
  • TSH causes the thyroid gland to produce two hormones: triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). T3 and T4 help control the body’s metabolism


  • Concentration of urea nitrogen in the blood
  • Most diseases or conditions that affect the kidneys or liver have the potential to affect the amount of urea present in the blood
  • Used to evaluate kidney function and monitor the effectiveness of dialysis.


Urine Culture
  • Used to diagnose a urinary tract infection (UTI).
  • Determines specific bacteria culture that causes the UTI


Vitamin A
  • Measures levels of vitamin A in the blood.
  • Vitamin A is a potent antioxidant


Vitamin B1
  • Measures levels of vitamin B1 in the blood.
  • Vitamin B1 (Thiamine) deficiency can cause beriberi – symptoms include weight loss, emotional disturbances, impaired sensory perception (Wernicke’s encephalopathy), weakness and pain in the limbs, and periods of irregular heart rate. Edema (swelling of bodily tissues) is common.


Vitamin B12
  • Measures cyanocobalamin (B12) levels
  • Vitamin B12 deficiency is seen in pernicious anemia and other blood and nervous system disorders
  • B12 is depleted with poor diet, high stress and birth control pill


Vitamin B6
  • Measures levels of vitamin B6 in the blood.
  • Vitamin B6 is a water-soluble vitamin and is a cofactor in many reactions of amino acid metabolism.
  • B6 is also is necessary for the enzymatic reaction governing the release of glucose from glycogen and plays a role in blood sugar metabolism.


Vitamin C
  • Measures levels of vitamin C in the blood.
  • Vitamin C is a powerful antioxidant, immune stimulant and supports tissue repair


Vitamin D 1,25 hydroxy
  • Indications of hypercalcemia, celiac disease and other bone pathologies
  • Recent research has indicated lack of vitamin D to a wide variety of chronic disease including autoimmune disease and cancer
  • Vitamin D is a potent immune regulator


Vitamin D 25 hydroxy
  • Indications of hypercalcemia, celiac disease and other bone pathologies
  • Recent research has indicated lack of vitamin D to a wide variety of chronic disease including autoimmune disease and cancer
  • Vitamin D is a potent immune regulator


Vitamin E
  • Measures levels of vitamin E in the blood.
  • Vitamin E is a fat-soluble vitamin in eight forms that is an important antioxidant that protects tissues of the body
  • Vitamin E is used in a wide variety of metabolic reactions within the body.


  • Measures levels of zinc in the blood.
  • Zinc is an important co-factor for a wide variety of physiological processes.
  • Zinc is important in skin, hair and immune function


* Note: if an abnormal CBC requires a pathologist review a $12.00 pathologist fee will be assessed.