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Urinalysis testing is a general method to test some of the body systems. Positive results are followed up with additional tests.


The coloration of the urine can point to many things including dehydration, uric acid crystals, bile secretion, blood, casts from bacteria, tissue remnants from infection as well as the presence of pseudomonas infection Note: certain supplements, drugs, foods such as beets can change the color of urine


Urine is normally odorless however; odorous urine can point to possible bile duct obstruction, bacteria overgrowth, diabetes and sugar abnormalities or other metabolic disorders. Note: certain supplements, drugs, foods such as asparagus can change the odor of urine


Urine should be almost clear. Increased turbidity of the urine means that urine is more opaque of cloudy in consistency. This can point to infection, inadequate digestion of proteins or possible sediment from kidney stones


There should be no glucose (sugars) present in the urine. Glucose in the urine can indicate diabetes or pre-diabetic states, kidney damage or inadequate digestion


Levels of bilirubin should not be found in the urine. Possible reasons include liver / gallbladder issues, the presence of stones or calciuli, issues with protein maldigestion and possible liver inflammation.


Ketones indicate a lack of carbohydrate digestion and is a result of decreased liver glycogen stores. Ketones can indicate prolonged fasting or starvation, blood sugar abnormalities, kidney insufficiency and a decrease in adrenal functioning


Blood should not be present in the urine as well as it can indicate infection, kidney inflammation or stones, liver issues, trauma to the body from excessive exercise or accident or high blood pressure. Note: the presence of blood may be normal in women who are menstruating at the time the sample is given


Protien in the urine indicates problems with kidney filtration, diabetes, infection, fever or allergies. Ideally there should be no protein in the urine at all.


There can be trace amounts of urobilinogen in the urine but anything higher can indicate destruction of blood cells, hemorrhaging of tissues, liver damage or bile duct obstruction. No urobilinogen can be a result of gallstones or inflammation of the bile ducts causing blockage of urobilinogen from entering into the blood


Nitrates indicate the presence of bacteria in the urine suggesting a possible urinary tract infection The test does not confirm infection and further microscopic testing must be done.


Leukocytes indicate the presence of white blood cells (WBC) which fight infection. WBCs are normally not present in the urine unless there is a bacterial infection present. The test does not confirm infection and further microscopic testing must be done.